This annual '3Rs Animal Ethics Award' recognises an individual or group who have made an outstanding contribution to the field of the 3Rs and animal welfare at The University of Western Australia (UWA).
Eligible applicants are:
Other eligibility criteria:
The principles of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement (the 3Rs) are the internationally accepted ethical framework for the humane use of animals in scientific studies .
The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) website (www.nc3rs. org.uk/page.asp?id=7) provides detailed information about the 3Rs, including the definitions outlined below:
Replacement refers to methods that avoid or replace the use of animals in an area that they would otherwise be used. This can be "absolute" i.e. using methods that don't use animals at any time e.g. computer modelling; human volunteers or in vitro methodologies; utilising established human or animal cell lines; animal cells, tissues and organs from animals killed by a humane method and abattoir material from the meat industry. Replacement can also be made by using alternate animal models e.g. invertebrates, such as Drosophila (fruit fly) and nematode worms.
Reduction refers to methods which minimise animal use and enable researchers to obtain comparable levels of information from fewer animals or to obtain more information from the same number of animals, thereby reducing future use of animals. Examples of reduction methods include improved experimental design and statistical analysis; using imaging techniques to image at multiple time points and the sharing of data and resources.
Refinement refers to improvements to scientific procedures and husbandry which minimise actual or potential pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm and/or improve animal welfare in situations where the use of animals is unavoidable. Refinement applies to the lifetime experience of the animal. There is evidence that refinement not only benefits animals, but can also improve the quality of research findings. Examples of refinement methods include non-invasive techniques, improved anaesthetic and analgesic regimes for pain relief, training animals to voluntarily co-operate with procedures and providing environmental enrichment.